电商App“李鬼”横行让人防不胜防

  仿冒购物平台窃取信息威胁消费者财产安全

  本报记者 杜 晓 实习生 付紫璇

  电商平台的崛起让网络购物成为人们生活常态,但随之而来的却是一些令人防不胜防的网购陷阱,威胁“互联网+”时代的购物安全。

  “双11”“黑五”……随着消费者购物需求增加,电商App下载量和使用量也在增加,这也给一些仿冒购物App提供了生存空间。今年“双11”前夕,360安全大脑发布的《2018年双十一购物安全生态报告》披露,根据2018年10月的检测数据,虚假仿冒主流购物App的数量接近4000个,覆盖设备超过30万个。其中,被仿冒最多的购物App为手机淘宝,达1148个,覆盖设备数超过17万;其次是拼多多,仿冒数达639个;天猫、京东、美团、唯品会等购物平台都在被仿冒名单前十名。

  为了进一步了解虚假仿冒App的实际状况,记者进行了调查采访。

  热门电商频频被山寨

  近几年的“双11”购物节,大学生李邱都会在手机上用电商平台的客户端购买早就选好的商品。尽管如此,作为资深买家的李邱也曾险些被仿冒的购物App蒙蔽。

  “去年‘双11’之前,我收到很多广告短信,写着‘买一送一’‘优惠促销’之类的话。我就点了其中一条短信的网站链接,直接就跳转到App的下载页面。”李邱向记者回忆起他的经历,“这个App看上去与正规的购物平台客户端一模一样,但只要打开这个App,就会不断跳出各种广告,还会直接跳到色情网站、赌博游戏的下载页面,停都停不下来。”

  采访中,受访者普遍反映,虚假仿冒的购物App通常与正版App界面一致,使用与正版App相似的名字和LOGO图标,使用户难辨其真伪。

  对于虚假仿冒App的猖獗,曾有网友调侃:“我躲过了粤利粤,分清了营养抉线,能认出康帅傅、脉劫、王老古,却无法看清楚这些App。”

  虚假仿冒购物App又是如何传播并诱导消费者下载的?

  “有时候应用平台里下载量多、排名靠前的App也不一定就是正版程序。”李邱告诉记者,“假冒的购物App经常伪装成WIFI破解、色情视频与小说之类的软件诱导人们下载。另外,一些论坛上有发布App推广信息的账号,这些账号注册时间都比较短,相应的App也可能会存在问题。”

  去年“双11”期间,腾讯手机管家发布的《双11网购诈骗安全报告》认为,一些诈骗短信中可能包含恶意网址,用户点击后会跳转到钓鱼网站或病毒App下载页面,不但没有领取优惠反而失财。

  仿冒App只做细微改动

  购物App种类、版本众多,也增加了消费者的辨认难度。

  “我一般会从正规应用商店下载客户端,但有时候搜一个软件名称会出来很多个,看上去都是正版的,只能通过评论和下载次数来猜测。之前我和朋友的手机里都有某知名购物网络平台App,但我们的软件图标不一样。不同时间下载、是否安装更新都会影响图标的样子,这就更难判断真假了。”消费者张力向记者表达了她的焦虑。

  记者在采访中发现,张力所面临的问题也是大多数消费者的困惑,普通消费者对于App的辨认能力有限。

  根据《2018年双十一购物安全生态报告》披露的仿冒购物App案例,以亚马逊App为例,山寨版App界面的LOGO和搜索栏等与正版App完全一样,只是在主页面推荐商品的部分有所差别。正版App的字体看上去较为饱满,但山寨App的字体却显得比较单薄,颜色也较浅。

  记者试图在一款第三方安卓手机软件平台搜寻淘宝App,输入“淘宝”进行关键词搜索后得到十余个结果,其中包括“手机淘宝”“淘宝精选”“淘宝特卖”“淘宝购物”等,图标几乎都是橙色底色配上白色“淘”字样。

  张力告诉记者,“双11”期间电商平台App的图标会在原有图标的基础上进行改变,比如添加“11.11”或其他字样,更增大了消费者对于真假App辨认的难度。

  记者还注意到,一些山寨购物App通过更换图标底色、更改正版App中字体等方式偷梁换柱。除了颜色或字体等细微差别,部分仿冒的购物App和电商平台官方发布的App几乎没有差异,用户仍可以在其操作界面浏览、搜索商品,也可以进入商家的店铺界面,浏览其他用户的购买评价等。

  仿冒一款App很容易

  虚假、仿冒、山寨App究竟是如何被开发出来的?其目的又是什么?

  赵杰是一名App技术开发从业者,他告诉记者,仿冒的购物App往往以获取用户的通讯记录、短信、照片以及在电商平台的注册、消费记录等个人信息为目的。

  “只要让用户通过App登录,便能够获得用户的个人信息,可以将这些信息传输到一个服务器,再把信息卖给有需求的人,比如需要精准投放广告的,这是有利润的。”赵杰说。

  App开发的前景吸引了部分热衷于软件编程的创业者,也为山寨购物App提供了“土壤”。

  记者又联系到活跃在App技术开发QQ交流群的业内人士马胜,他告诉记者,“单从技术的角度讲,仿冒一款App是非常容易的。我曾经写了一款适用于安卓系统的手机App,几天就被抄袭了,甚至连图标都一模一样,就是把配色给换了。对于这些盗版的App,第三方软件下载平台很难管理,尤其是安卓系统的软件,本来就是一个开放的平台,大家只要有技术就可以入驻。”

  对于山寨App的危害,马胜透露,山寨的购物App不只可以通过要求用户注册、下单支付以窃取支付账号和银行账户信息,还可以通过App内置的程序和算法暗中“跑流量”,恶意扣取用户账户内的资金。

  “有的App手法更黑,挂有木马或者是病毒,只要打开这个程序,手机就会中病毒。这些都可以在手机用户不知情的情况下完成,用户的手机被木马程序入侵了都不知道。”马胜说。

  (应采访对象要求,文中受访者均为化名)

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